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Fac-similé du Plan Morgenthau


Plan Morgenthau

Program too prevent Germany from starting a World War II

1. Demitilarization of Germany.
   It should be the aim of the Allied Forces to accomplish the complete demilitarization of Germany in the shortest possible period of time after surrender. This means completely disarming the German Army and people (including the removal or destruction of all war material), the total destruction of the whole German armement industry, and the removal or destruction of other key industries which are basic to military strength.
2. New Boundaries of Germany
   (a) Poland should get that part of East Prussia which doesn't go to the USSR and the southern portion of Silesia.
(see maps in 12 Appendix)
   (b) France should get the Saar and the adjacent territories bounded by the Rhine and the Moselle Rivers.
   (c) as indicated in 4 below an International Zone should be created containin the Ruhr and the surrounding industrial areas.
5. Partitioning of New Germany
   The remainin portion of Germany should be dividd into two autonomous, independent states, (1) a South German state comprising Bavaria, Wuerttemberg, Baden and some smaller areas and (2) a North German state comprising a large part of the old state of Prussia, Saxony, Thuringia and several smaller states.
   There shall be a custom union between the new South German state and Austria, which will be restored to her pre-1938 political borders.
4. The Ruhr Area. (The Ruhr,industrial areas, as shown on the map, including the Rhineland, the Keil Canal, and all German territory north of the Keil Canal.)
   Here lies the heart of German industrial poer/ This area should not only be stripped of all presently existing industries but soweakened and controlled that it can not in the foreseeable future become an industrial area. The following steps will accomplish this:
   (a) Within a short period, if possible not longer than 5 months after the cessation of hostilities, all industrial plants and equipments not destroyed by military action shall be completely dismantled and transported to Allied Nations as restitution. All equipment shall be removed from the mines and the minesclosed.
   (b) The area should be made an international zone to be governed by an international security organization to be established by the United Nations. In governing the area, the international organization should be guided by policies designed to further the above stated objective.
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5. Restitution adn reparation.

   Reparations, in the form of future paymnts and deliveries, should not be demanded. Restitution and reparation shall be effected by the transfer of existging German resources and territories, e.g.,

   (a) by restitution of property looted by the German in territories occupied by them;
   (b) by transfer of German territory and German private rights in industrial property situated in such territory to invaded countries and the internation organizatin under the program of partition;
   (c) by the removal and distribution among deveastated countries of industrial plants and equipment situated <ithin the International Zone and the North and South German states delimited in the section on partition;
   (d) by forced German labord outside Germany; and
   (e) by confiscaztion of all German assets of any character whatsoever outside of Germany.
6. Education and Propaganda
   (a) All schools and universities will be closed until an Alllied Commission of Education has formulated an effective reorganization program. It is contmplated that it may require a considerable period of time before anyu institutions of higher education are reopened. Meanwhile the education of German students in foreign universiteis will not be prohibited. Elementary schools will be reopened as quickly as appropriate teachers and textbooks are availabl.
   (b) All German radio stations and newspapers, magazines, weeklies, etc. shall be discontinued until adequate controls are established and an appropriate program formulated.

7. Political decentralization.
   The military administration in Germany in the initial perdio should be carried out with a view toward the ventual partitioninfg of Germany. To facilitate patitioning and to assure its permanence the military authorities should be guided by the following principles:
   (a) Dismiss al policy-making officials of the Reich fovernment anddeal primarily with local governments;
   (b) Encourage the reestablishment of state governments in each of the states (Lander) corresponding to 18 states into which Germanyis presently divided and in addition make the Prussian provinces separate states.
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   (c) Upon th partition of Germany, the various state governments should be encouraged to organize a federal governmnt for each of the newly partitioned areas. Such new governments should be in the form of a confederation of states, with emphasis on states' rights and a large degree of local autonomy.

8. Responsibility of Military for local German Economy.

   The sole purpose of them iltary in control of the German economy shall be to facilitate military operations and military occupation. The Allied Military Government shall not assume responsibility for such eceonomic problems as price controls, rationing, unemployment, production, reconstruction, distribution consumption, housing, or transportation, or take any measures designend to maintain or straighten the German eceonomy, except those which are essential to military operations. The responsibility for sutaining the German economy and people rests with the German with such facilities asmay be available under the circumstances.

9. Controls over Development of German Economy

   During a period of at least twenty years after surrender adeqyatrecontrols, including controls over foreign trade and tight restrictions on capital imports, shall be maintained by the United Nations designed to prevent in the newly established states the establishment or expansion of key industries basic to the German military potential and to control other key industries.

10. Agrarian Program.

   All large estates should be broken up and divided among the peasants and the system of primogeniture and entail should be abolished.

11. Punioshment of War Crimes a,d Treatment of Special Groups.

   A program for the punishmen of certain war crimes and for the treatment of Nazi organizations and other special groups is contained in section 11.

12. Uniforms and parades.

   (a) No German shall be permitted to wear, after an appropriate perdio of time following the cessation of hostilities, any military uniform or any uniform of any quasi military organization.

   (b) No military parades shall be permitted anywhere in Germany and all military bands shall be disbanded.

13. Aircraft.

   All aircraft (including gliders), whether military or commercial, will be confiscated for lateer disposition. No german shall be permitted to operate or help operate any aircraft, including those owned by foreign interests.

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14. United States Responsibility.

   Although the United States would have full military and civilian representation on whatever international commission or commisions may be established for the execution of the whole German program, the primary responsibility for the pollicing of Germany and for civil administration in Germany should be assumed by the military forces of Germany's continental neighbors. Specifically, the should include Russian, French, Polish, Czech, Greek, Yugoslav, Norwegian, Dutch and Belgian soldiers.

   Under this program United States should be withdrawn within a relativzely short time.pecifically, the should include Russian, French, Polish, Czech, Greek, Yugoslav, Norwegian, Dutch and Belgian soldiers.

   Under this program United States could be withdrawn within a relatively short time.

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Nous nous plaçons sous la protection de l'article 19 de la Déclaration des Droits de l'homme, qui stipule:
ARTICLE 19 <Tout individu a droit à la liberté d'opinion et d'expression, ce qui implique le droit de ne pas être inquiété pour ses opinions et celui de chercher, de recevoir et de répandre, sans considération de frontière, les informations et les idées par quelque moyen d'expression que ce soit>
Déclaration internationale des droits de l'homme, adoptée par l'Assemblée générale de l'ONU à Paris, le 10 décembre 1948.

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